Strong Coulomb and exchange interactions between π electrons in an atomically
flat carbon monolayer result in π electron localization and electron crystal formation and
transform the layer into a simplest quasi-two-dimensional mesoscopic quantum system. Such
a system must have dielectric and pronounced diamagnetic properties and a high sensitivity to
external factors distorting its electron crystals. The instability manifests itself in a tendency of
the monolayer to be transformed into a more stable carbon modification with a rolled-up or
wrapped-up carbon skeleton, which is observed as a monolayer corrugation. Such a corrugated
monolayer is characterized by the presence of excited π electrons, which are responsible for its
physical and chemical properties.
Keywords: flat carbon monolayer; unstable quasi-2D mesoscopic quantum system.
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