Rev.Adv.Mater.Sci. (RAMS)
No 1/2, Vol. 55, 2018, pages 50-60

ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY MONOLITHIC HIGHLY-POROUS BIOCARBONS
AS BINDER-FREE SUPERCAPACITOR ELECTRODES

T.S. Orlova, V.V. Shpeizman, N.V. Glebova, A.A. Nechitailov, A.A. Spitsyn,
D.A. Ponomarev, A. Gutierrez-Pardo and J. Ramirez-Rico

Abstract

A simple, low-cost and environmentally friendly method has been used to obtain highly porous biomorphic carbon monoliths with a good combination of interconnected macro-, meso and microporosity, and good electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, making these biocarbon materials interesting for electrochemical applications as binder-free electrodes. Highly porous monolithic biocarbons were obtained from beech wood precursors through pyrolysis and subsequent surface modification in a steam heated to 970 úC with different activation times. The obtained biocarbons demonstrated good electrical conductivity and mechanical strength. They were studied as electrodes for supercapacitors in half cell experiments, demonstrating maximum gravimetric capacitance of 200 F g-1 in a basic media at scan rate 1 mV s-1. Galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments showed maximum capacitance of 185 F g-1 at current density of 0.15 A g-1 and ~100 F g-1 at current density of 0.75 A g-1. It has been shown that in addition to the developed porous surface, the micropores with diameters exceeding 1 nm play a key role for the enhanced electrochemical capacity. Long-cycling experiments demonstrated excellent stability of the monolithic biocarbon electrodes with no reduction of the initial capacitance values after 600 cycles in voltammetry.

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