Rev.Adv.Mater.Sci. (RAMS)
No 2, Vol. 27, 2011, pages 99-114


N. Kannan and S. Subbalaxmi


In the last decade, synthesis of nanoparticles has been the subject of a lot of studies due to its commercial importance and applications. Their interesting characteristics and wide applications have led to numerous methods being developed for synthesis of nanoparticles of various shapes and sizes. Typically, the methods employed for their synthesis of nanoparticle include physical, mechanical and chemical methods. However, these methods are very expensive and some of them which involve hazardous chemicals. Therefore, there is emergent need to develop environmentally benign and sustainable methods for nanoparticle synthesis. Green chemistry processes led to environmental friendly method of synthesis and safe process as compared to other methods. Biological sources such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, actinomycetes, algae and plant materials, etc. can catalyze specific reactions as a part of modern and realistic biosynthetic strategies. These can be alternate to other physical, chemical methods, ultraviolet irradiation, lithography, laser ablation, ultrasonic fields, and photochemical reduction techniques. The general outline of this present work includes information of the different microbial sources, importance of physicochemical characteristics, and the applications of metal nanoparticles. The commercial importance of "current perspectives" includes the precise and specific analysis of nanoparticles, biological systems that may support and revolutionize the art of synthesis of nanoparticles. The advances of biological route from the general, molecular, catalytic, and functional information obtained under close to optimal conditions through action of enzymatic properties may help to understand the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of nanoparticles formation.

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