No 2, Vol. 4, 2003 


F.D. Morrison1, Y. Luo2, I. Szafraniak2, V. Nagarajan3, R.B. Wehrspohn2, M. Steinhart2,4, J.H. Wendroff4, N.D. Zakharov2, E.D. Mishina5,6, K.A. Vorotilov5 A.S. Sigov5, S. Nakabayashi6, M. Alexe2, R. Ramesh3 and J.F. Scott1

1 Symetrix Centre for Ferroics, Earth Sciences Dept., University of Cambridge,
Cambridge CB2 3EQ, UK
2 Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle, Germany
3 University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
4 Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Marburg, Hans-Meerwein, Germany
5 Moscow State Institute for Radioengineering, Electronics and Automation
(Technical University - MIREA), Moscow 119454, Russia
6 Department of Chemistry, Saitama University, Saitama, 338-8570, Japan


We report the independent invention of ferroelectric nanotubes from groups in several countries. Devices have been made with three different materials: lead zirconate-titanate PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT); barium titanate BaTiO3; and strontium bismuth tantalate SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT). Several different deposition techniques have been used successfully, including misted CSD (chemical solution deposition) and pore wetting. Ferroelectric hysteresis and high optical nonlinearity have been demonstrated. The structures are analyzed via SEM, TEM, XRD, AFM (piezo-mode), and SHG. Applications to trenching in Si dynamic random access memories, ink-jet printers, and photonic devices are discussed. Ferroelectric filled pores as small as 20 nm in diameter have been studied.

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