Example of 3D simulation can be seen below, where short sharp-nose projectile penetrates a thin plate made from the same material. The left picture shows initial state of the system. Next four pictures show sequential stages of the orthogonal impact. Wear of the projectile, crater formation, and debris sputtering are clearly visible.
Next five pictures show sequential stages of the oblique impact. Last two pictures correspond to the moment of time just after the perforation when the projectile still is not completely separated from the target. They show the experiment at the same moment, but from a different direction. Small thickness of the plate and low velocity of impact allows clear observation of the elastic waves, which are excited in the plate due to the projectile impact.
Below you can see repetition of the above experiment but for the higher impact velocity.
Press any picture to see the larger view.
Designed by Julia Asaturova